Firstly, your resume contains enough information that others can steal your identity - so circulate it only to those you trust.
Secondly, your resume is your own personal promotional document - so circulate it sparingly, thus retaining its impact.
Finally, you need to actively manage recruiters to ensure your resume is never sent anywhere without your explicit permission. A common scenario we see is when a recruiter mentions they have a relationship with a company and takes this as permission to send your CV to that company. To us this is unacceptable and, if you genuinely care about your personal brand, it needs to be unacceptable to you too.